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Anemia may also result from o toxin exposure (lead poisoning) o as an adverse reaction to a medication (aplastic anemia). Am J Ind Med. 2009;168:918–24. [30] reported that BPb levels of 10–20 μg/dL could precipitate anemia. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin and becomes elevated as hemoglobin is released. Memory and concentration problems. Male workers in the lead battery manufacturing processes of grinding, cutting, and filling had relatively higher BPb concentrations than those in other working areas. Even though numerous studies have demonstrated that BPb can induce adverse effects to the hematological system, Pourabdian et al. Overall, the BMD models provide more accurate and precise value by using the computational approach, which considers the uncertainty from the epidemiological information and mathematical models. The hazard prevention probabilities for female workers were 85.5–95.0% when BPb limit of 15 μg/dL was adopted. Barbosa F, Tanus-Santos JE, Gerlach RF, Parsons PJ. The distributions of the abnormal number in hematological indicators are shown in Table 2. 1995;10:228–30. ORs and adjusted ORs in male workers were 1.00 (95% CI: 0.84–1.18) and 1.10 (0.85–1.41) by using 35 μg/dL as BPb limit with the hazard prevention probabilities of 50.6% and 76.2% under unadjusted and adjusted scenarios, respectively. Shaik AP, Jamil K. Individual susceptibility and genotoxicity in workers exposed to hazardous materials like lead. Endocrine, Hepatic, Neural, and; Renal. Google Scholar. CAS  Compared to adults, children absorb lead 4-5 times more from a given source. To determine whether the proposed BMD can be used as a novel BPb limit for lead exposed-associated risk management, this study applied a Bayesian decision approach that has been widely used in the probabilistic-based statistical method in decision making [17]. Shih RA, Hu H, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz BS. 2009;12:58–64. We observed some abnormal hematological indicators in female workers who had lower BPb concentrations, an effect which may have been due to menstruation or pregnancy. The benchmark response (BMR) was set to an abnormal proportion of 10% (BMR10) in the dose-response relationshi, as a conservative approach to protect the health of lead-exposed. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of the lead factories in Taiwan. 2a). Lin JL Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead Reprod Biol Endocrin. Cheng Y, Schwartz J, Vokonas PS, Weiss ST, Aro A, Hu H. Electrocardiographic conduction disturbances in association with low level lead exposure. We first collated BPb and indicators of hematopoietic function data via health examination records that included 533 male and 218 female lead-exposed workers between 2012 and 2014. 0 ~ binomial (π Hoboken: Wiley; 2009. J Hazard Mater. 0 and π Scientific World J. Jon Meiman, MD; Robert Thiboldeaux, PhD; Henry Anderson, MD. … Environ Health Perspect. Neurotoxicity and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review. Are There Any Factors That Might Affect the Lab Results? Chuang HY, Lee ML, Chao KY, Wang JD, Hu H. Relationship of blood lead levels to personal hygiene habits in lead battery workers: Taiwan, 1991–1997. Based on the probability distribution (Fig. Wignall JA, Shapiro AJ, Wright FA, Woodruff TJ, Chiu WA, Guyton KZ, Rusyn I. Standardizing benchmark dose calculations to improve science-based decisions in human health assessments. Evaluating temporal trends from occupational lead exposure data reported in the published literature using meta-regression. Although the ORs and hazard prevention probabilities of a BPb level at 25 μg/dL were higher than those of a BPb level at 35 μg/dL, it seems that the improving efficiency had reached the theoretical level. Anemia associated with lead poisoning. Schwartz BS, Hu H. Adult lead exposure: time for change. NHH performed research concept design, data interpretation, manuscript preparation, and overall responsibility for study data. To the editor: Recently, Pasricha et al 1 reported on the control of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. However, the results from hazard prevention probabilities showed that there were nearly 50–70% probabilities of improving the lead-related anemia by restraining BPb limit up to 25–35 μg/dL for male workers. 1| y) ~ beta (y Some other information such as gender, birthdate, start working date and manufacturing area were also been recorded. All rights reserved. California Privacy Statement, Springer Nature. It may also be decreased in liver disease. PubMed Central  The examination items were included the inspection of BPb and hematological indicators of hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hgb), red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) [16]. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Lin-Tan DT, Wang ML, Huang HY, Lee CL, Wang HS, Soong YK. Evaluating uncertainty to strengthen epidemiologic data for use in human health risk assessments. A probabilistic risk assessment approach was used to estimate the BPb effect doses for abnormal hematological indicators and to assess anemia risk associated with exposure to lead. Furthermore, a long-term follow-up investigation is urgently needed to characterize lead-associated adverse health effects. Kosnett MJ, Wedeen RP, Rothenberg SJ, Hipkins KL, Materna BL, Schwartz BS, Hu H, Woolf A. 4). 0, b Hsieh, NH., Chung, SH., Chen, SC. Close more info about Anemia Associated with Lead Poisoning. 5). Health risk of anemia for workers at job-specific working areas was calculated by using a joint probability function combining the predicted BMD10 as acceptable risk limits and BPb concentration. The risk contribution proportions in other working groups were all less than 10% (Fig. 2007;51:665–78. Although gasoline and paint are no longer made with lead in them, lead is still a health problem. (DOCX 32 kb), Fitted quantal model for male lead-exposed workers. The estimated BMDs were further treated probabilistically by considering the BMD10 and BMDL10, representing the mean and lower levels of 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively. PubMed Google Scholar. Lead poisoning and anemia are both preventable. The main purpose of this study was to assess the risk of anemia for workers in lead factories and to provide a suggested BPb limit to improve health management for lead workers. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (210K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. The permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 50 μg/m3 in Taiwan. lead poisoning is caused by occupational and environmental lead exposure and c a n cause damage to various body systems. 2015;12:S7–17. 2013;54:325–8. It may cause potentially permanent learning and behavior disorders in children, as it affects nervous system development. Lead Poisoning and Anemia Associated With use of Ayurvedic Medications Purchased on the Internet — Wisconsin, 2015. Assessing airborne PM-bound arsenic exposure risk in semiconductor manufacturing facilities. Signs of hemolysis may … Bailer AJ, Wheeler M, Dankovic D, Nobel R, Bena J. Low-level lead exposure risk is an occupational and public health problem that should be paid more attention. You cannot smell or taste lead, and it’s not visible to the naked eye. We used benchmark dose (BMD) modeling to estimate the critical effect doses for detection of abnormal indicators. Lead poisoning is what happens when lead builds up in your body over a period of months or years. $$,$$ {w}_k=\frac{ \exp \left(-0.5{AIC}_k\right)}{\sum_{i=1}^K \exp \left(-0.5{AIC}_i\right)}. The observed average BPb levels were much lower than the current health management limits in this study. The brain is the most sensitive. Fairfax R, Kilens G. Lead control in a bronze foundry. The adverse health effects of lead exposure have been known for centuries. The OR was estimated as. 2007;115:483–92. Mason LH, Harp JP, Han DY. Privacy This study took into account all BMD models that had large p-value from Pearson χ2 goodness-of-fit statistics. Properties of model-averaged BMDLs: a study of model averaging in dichotomous response risk estimation. Otherwise, the low-level lead exposure may also be a potential risk factor in public health. Anemia. There are several types of hemolytic anemia, such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia Anemia related to insufficient … 1) where Y Cumulative lead dose and cognitive function in adults: a review of studies that measured both blood lead and bone lead. Patients with lead poisoning will often show basophilic stippling. 0) and Y $$,$$ \mathrm{OR}=\frac{\pi_1\left(1-{\pi}_0\right)}{\pi_0\left(1-{\pi}_1\right)}. Weisskopf MG, Sparrow D, Hu H, Power MC. We used correlation analysis to investigate the relationships among hematological indicators, BPb, and related confounders. We applied Bayesian decision analysis to determine whether BMD could be implicated as a suitable BPb standard. We used the recommended BMDs to compare with the current health management limits that were 40 and 30 μg/dL for male and female workers, respectively. 2009;167:976–86. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children. 1). Anemia makes it easier for lead to get into the blood. Risk Anal. YJL is a postdoctoral research fellow in Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University. Keramati MR, Manavifar L, Badiee Z, Sadeghian MH, Farhangi H, Mood MB. Kidney damage. Lead Causes Neurological Damage in Children. J Occup Environ Hyg. CancerTherapyAdvisor.com is a free online resource that offers oncology healthcare professionals a comprehensive knowledge base of practical oncology information and clinical tools to assist in making the right decisions for their patients. The anemia may be due to decreased production of hemoglobin, as well as hemolysis. The article discusses common contributory etiologies ranging from nutritional to infectious causes for iron deficiency anemia in the pediatric age group. This study could not investigate and control the other possible sources of lead exposure outside the work and get the complete information on previous experience of lead-related work. All identifications such as name and job id were removed by the lead factories and Taiwan Institute of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health. As such, there are many other disorders that may cause an elevated LDH. High blood pressure. This study suggests that current BPb standard needs to be better understood for the application of lead-exposed population protection in different scenarios to provide a novel standard for health management. Continue Reading. Cite this article. Therefore, lead workers might suffer from illnesses associated with low-level lead exposure. PubMed Central  The average ages of male and female workers were 43.7 (sd: 10.2) and 47.1 (8.6) yrs. By contrast, our study found that BPb-related hematological effects may display gender-specificity due to inter-individual variability. In addition, what follow-up tests might be useful? k. for each model as [20]. Adverse hematological effects are some of the manifestations of lead poisoning in lead workers. Confounding was addressed using data stratification. It causes almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can result in behavioral problems. Your use of this website constitutes acceptance of Haymarket Media’s Privacy Policy and Terms & Conditions. Am J Epidemiol. Ahmad SA, Khan MH, Khandker S, Sarwar AFM, Yasmin N, Faruquee MH, Yasmin R. Blood lead levels and health problems of lead acid battery workers in Bangladesh. … 2007;115:463–71. 2014;840547. According to the Labor Health Protection Law in Taiwan, the employer has the obligation to conduct the health examination for every worker once a year. Some of the ways to reduce the risk of lead poisoning include: having a professional remove lead-based paint from homes; allowing tap water to run for a minute or so before use to clear the pipes of any lead-contaminated water; and using only cold tap water for drinking and cooking, as hot tap water is more likely to leach lead. 2007;115:451–4. Lead intoxication is hypochromic and normo -or microcytic with associated reticulocytosis a assessment... Risk decision-making in environmental and occupational health research Institutes: time for change that results from lead.. In Table S1 ( see chapter on laboratory testing for lead to elevated LDH medication! Learn vocabulary, Terms, and in severe cases anemia, from Mayo Clin Proc1 with permission of the print. } } of { { metering-total } } of { { metering-total } of. 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